The Bargello National Museum is a museum in Florence dedicated to sculpture .
Its collection of Renaissance statues is considered among the most remarkable in the world [2] : it includes masterpieces by Michelangelo , Donatello , Ghiberti , Cellini , Giambologna , Ammannati and other important sculptors, as well as a large collection of applied arts , organized mainly by type. The name derives from the Palazzo del Bargello , also called Palazzo del Popolo.
In 2016 it was the 37th most visited museum in Italy with 213,598 visitors, down compared to 2015.
With the constitution of Florence as a free municipality and the creation of the figure of the captain of the people , the palace later called the Bargello was built. The first nucleus, overlooking Via del Proconsolo , already begun in 1255 , was built according to Giorgio Vasari da Lapo Tedesco , incorporating the old Palagio, the Boscoli tower and some houses and towers of the Badia Fiorentina , between 1340 and 1345 the building was raised by Neri di Fioravante .
Subsequently expanded with a new building on Via dell'Acqua between 1260 and 80 in 1295 the porticoed courtyard was built, between 1316 and 1320 it was raised on the sides of via Ghibellina and via dell'Acqua. In the middle of the fourteenth century it became the seat of the Podestà. With the establishment of the Medici hegemony in the second half of the fifteenth century, it became the seat of the Council of Justice and the Judges of Ruota, and from 1574 , under the duke Cosimo I de 'Medici , seat of the bargello , or the head of the Guards or of Piazza, which provided for arrests, interrogations and also proceeded to execute the death sentences. The figure of the podestà as a tax collector then generated an idiomatic phrase that became famous: " Here is the goose beak (and the horns to the podestà) .
In the nearly three centuries, when it was used as a prison, in the courtyard the arches of the loggia and the arch were walled, the largest rooms were divided with partitions to obtain a greater number of cells and the paintings and decorations were covered.
In the 1940s, Baron Seymour Kirkup , together with other collaborators, financed a series of surveys inside the chapel of Santa Maria Maddalena, following which, on July 21, 1840 , the painter-restorer Antonio Marini reported to the light a portrait of Dante , who according to Vasari had been painted by Giotto .
After the prison was transferred to the Murate, it was decided in 1859 the restoration of the complex until 1865 and under the direction of Francesco Mazzei , who restored the ancient appearance tried to recover or redo the architectural ornaments from scratch and entrusting the pictorial decorations of the rooms Gaetano Bianchi who was inspired by monuments of the same period.
In 1865 the National Museum was inaugurated on the ground floor and two arms rooms were set up, with objects coming partly from the Medici armory and from the Guardaroba of Palazzo Vecchio, and a sculpture hall of the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the first floor hall there were sculptures coming from the Salone dei Cinquecento in Palazzo Vecchio .
Subsequently from the Uffizi , came the sculptures in bronze and marble, both the collections of applied arts: majolica, wax, amber, ivory, goldsmiths, enamels and bronzes, some of them transferred in 1928 to the Silver Museum . Other materials flowed from donations and loans from private individuals and from public institutions: from the State Archives the seals and the Mint coins. Finally, as a result of the Unification of Italy and the consequent suppression of monastic orders came robbiane , sculptures and sacred goldsmiths.
On the occasion of the centenary of Donatello in 1887, the hall was designed to house works by the artist and 15th-century Florentine sculpture.
The donation of the collection of the Lyonese antique dealer Louis Carrand dates back to 1888. In 1886, the Conti donation was made, in 1899 the Ressman and in 1906 the Franchetti enriching the applied arts sector.
Hard hit by the 1966 flood, it underwent a series of upgrades and displacements. On July 13, 2006 he suffered a blatant theft during the normal opening hours of three ancient jewels of the Islamic section.